Prevention (References)

8 August 2022

Ghebreyesus TA; World Health Organization. Why the monkeypox outbreak constitutes a public health emergency of international concern. BMJ. 2022 Aug 9;378:o1978. PubMed: Full text:

The monkeypox outbreak is “another demonstration that breaking the cycle of “panic and neglect” that for decades has been the hallmark of the global response to epidemics and pandemics requires a paradigm shift in global health.”


29 July 2022

Ortiz-Martínez Y, Sarmiento J, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Rodríguez-Morales AJ. Monkeypox goes viral: measuring the misinformation outbreak on Twitter. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2022 Jul 28;16(7):1218-1220. PubMed: Full text:

Previous studies have highlighted the misinformation spread on Twitter during recent public health  emergencies, mainl y Ebola, Yellow fever, and COVID-19. After analyzing the 100 top tweets in English with the term “monkey pox” and with at least 100 replies, the authors find that most tweets (52%) included misinformation and unverifiable  information, 20% included humorous/non-serious  content, and only 28% of the collected tweets provided  serious information regarding monkeypox.  As expected, the misleading tweets were more likely to receive  replies, retweets and likes compared to the medically correct content.


27 July 2022

Jacobs JW, Filkins L, Booth GS, Adkins BD. The potential impact of monkeypox infection and vaccination on blood donor deferrals and the blood supply. Br J Haematol. 2022 Jul 27. PubMed: Full text:

The authors point out that there might be a “need to investigate the potential for transfusion transmission via focused studies on detection of monkeypox DNA and infectivity in relevant patient and blood donor populations (e.g., donors with multiple sexual partners of recent syphilis seroreactivity).”


27 July 2022

Nuzzo JB, Borio LL, Gostin LO. The WHO Declaration of Monkeypox as a Global Public Health Emergency. JAMA. 2022 Jul 27. PubMed: Full text:

The window for controlling monkeypox is closing and a well-funded global plan for containment is needed.


26 July 2022

Taylor L. Monkeypox: WHO declares a public health emergency of international concern. BMJ. 2022 Jul 26;378:o1874. PubMed: Full text:

WHO has declared the global monkeypox outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). The four recommendations: 1) implement a coordinated response to stop transmission, 2) protect vulnerable groups, 3) increase public health surveillance and measures, and 4) strengthen clinical management and infection prevention and control in hospitals and clinics.


26 July 2022

[Editorial] Monkeypox: wealthy countries must avoid their COVID-19 mistakes. Nature. 2022 Jul;607(7920):635-636. PubMed: Full text:

Now that WHO has declared monkeypox a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC), “nations must work together to tackle the outbreak and ensure that sufficient resources are provided to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the disease has historically been most prevalent. “


25 July 2022

Kwon SL, Ban S, Shin J, Bae H, Park H, Kwon GY. Monkeypox Vaccination in the Republic of Korea: Identifying the High-Risk Target Group. J Korean Med Sci. 2022 Jul 25;37(29):e239. PubMed: Full text:

“A ring vaccination strategy for the high-risk group is more appropriate than the mass population vaccination with smallpox vaccines. Therefore, identifying the proper target group by available vaccines based on the risk and benefit analysis is a key issue of the vaccination program.”


6 July 2022

Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Lopardo G, Verbanaz S, et al. Latin America: Situation and preparedness facing the multi-country human monkeypox outbreak. Lancet Reg Health Am. 2022 Sep;13:100318. PubMed: Full text:

In Latin America, the risk for expansion of MPX Is still moderate. Will the continent be able to allocate necessary resources and strengthen epidemiological surveillance to detect imported cases and limit onward transmission?


28 June 2022

Kampf G. Efficacy of biocidal agents and disinfectants against the monkeypox virus and other orthopoxviruses. J Hosp Infect. 2022 Jun 28:S0195-6701(22)00200-6. PubMed: Full text:

Evaluation of published data on the antiviral efficacy of biocidal agents and disinfectants against the monkeypox virus and other orthopoxviruses. Vaccinia viruses could be inactivated by at least 4 log10 in suspension tests and on artificially contaminated surfaces by 70% ethanol (≤ 1 min), 0.2% peracetic acid (≤ 10 min) and 1% to 10% of a probiotic cleaner (1 h), mostly shown with different types of organic load. Hydrogen peroxide (14.4%) and iodine (0.04% – 1%) were effective in suspension tests, sodium hypochlorite (0.25% – 2.5%; 1 min), 2% glutaraldehyde (10 min) and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (5 min) were effective on artificially contaminated surfaces.


17 June 2022

Kluge H, Ammon A. Monkeypox in Europe and beyond – tackling a neglected disease together. Euro Surveill. 2022 Jun;27(24):2200482. PubMed: Full text:

The authors summarize the critical elements for an effective response by ECDC and WHO/Europe to the monkeypox outbreak in Europe.


10 June 2022

Minhaj FS, Ogale YP, Whitehill F, et al. Monkeypox Outbreak – Nine States, May 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Jun 10;71(23):764-769. PubMed: Full text:

“The following measures can be taken by the public to prevent infection with monkeypox: 1) isolate ill persons from uninfected persons; 2) practice good hand hygiene and use appropriate personal protective equipment to protect household members if ill or caring for ill persons at home (e.g., a surgical mask, long sleeves and pants, and disposable gloves); 3) use an Environmental Protection Agency–registered disinfectant with an emerging viral pathogens claim that is found on EPA’s List Q for disinfection of surfaces.††† Patients should also avoid contact with pets and other animals while infectious, because some mammals might be susceptible to monkeypox.”