Overviews (References)

27 July 2022

Titanji BK, Tegomoh B, Nematollahi S, Konomos M, Kulkarni PA. Monkeypox: A Contemporary Review for Healthcare Professionals. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23;9(7):ofac310. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35891689. Full text: https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/9/7/ofac310/6615388

A “review for healthcare professionals”, 13 pages, 128 references.


27 July 2022

Kmiec D, Kirchhoff F. Monkeypox: A New Threat? Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 17;23(14):7866. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35887214. Full text: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147866

The authors summarize the current knowledge about monkeypox virus, discuss available strategies to limit its spread and pathogenicity and evaluate its risk to the human population. 14 pages, 101 references.


20 July 2022

Alakunle EF, Okeke MI. Monkeypox virus: a neglected zoonotic pathogen spreads globally. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2022 Jul 20. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35859005. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-022-00776-z

“The current outbreak of MPX in non-endemic regions should be a wake-up call and highlights how little-to-no attention has been paid to the spread of the virus within endemic areas. It should also serve as a reminder that in an inter-connected and globalized world, no region or country is safe from zoonotic pathogens like MPXV unless the virus is contained in endemic regions.”


19 July 2022

Osterholm MT, Gellin B. Confronting 21st-century monkeypox. Science. 2022 Jul 19:eadd9651. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35857487. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.add9651

“Long-term control of monkeypox will require vaccinating as many as possible of the 327 million people 40 years of age and younger living in the 11 African countries where monkeypox is endemic in an animal (rodent) reservoir.”


19 July 2022

Choudhary G, Prabha PK, Gupta S, Prakash A, Medhi B. Monkeypox infection: A quick glance. Indian J Pharmacol. 2022 May-Jun;54(3):161-164. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35848685. Full text: https://doi.org/10.4103/ijp.ijp_400_22

“A quick glance.”


8 July 2022

Titanji BK. Neglecting emerging diseases – monkeypox is the latest price of a costly default. Med (N Y). 2022 Jul 8;3(7):433-434. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35809556. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2022.06.002

“Many [current] infection clusters have no travel link to an endemic country, indicating local transmission as a major source of new infections. Why is this happening now and what has changed about a virus we have known to exist and to infect humans for over 50 years? The answer is a combination of timing, neglect and opportunity.”


6 July 2022

Martín-Delgado MC, Martín Sánchez FJ, Martínez-Sellés M, et al. Monkeypox in humans: a new outbreak. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2022 Jul 6:martin06jul2022. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35785957. Full text: https://doi.org/10.37201/req/059.2022

Received: 27 June 2022; Accepted: 1 July 2022; Published: 6 July2022. A review with 105 references.


1 July 2022

The Lancet Regional Health-Europe. Lessons from COVID-19 are shaping the response to monkeypox outbreak. Lancet Reg Health Eur. 2022 Jul;18:100463. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35791347. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2022.100463

“There is growing concern that the virus might find an animal reservoir outside Africa that can spread more easily in humans. Therefore, there is a need for close collaboration between veterinary and public health authorities working from a ‘One Health’ perspective, to manage exposed pets and also to prevent the disease from being transmitted to wildlife.”


30 June 2022

Simões P, Bhagani S. A viewpoint: The 2022 monkeypox outbreak. J Virus Erad. 2022 Jun 18;8(2):100078. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35784677. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jve.2022.100078. eCollection 2022 Jun

A short overview of the current monkeypox outbreak with the four key questions: Why now? Why in Europe? Why are MSM in the United Kingdom disproportionally affected? Why is the clinical presentation milder?


24 June 2022

Xiang Y, White A. Monkeypox Virus Emerges from The Shadow of Its More Infamous Cousin: Family Biology Matters. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2022 Jun 24:1-14. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35751396. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2095309

The authors conclude that the current multi-country monkeypox outbreak might be déjà vu of the early days of COVID-19 to some people. “Similar questions have arisen: Does the current outbreak reflect a new transmission pattern for MPXV? Has MPXV mutated or have the potential to mutate to be more human transmissible? What can we do to prevent or prepare for a worst-case scenario?”


24 June 2022

Hraib M, Jouni S, Albitar MM, Alaidi S, Alshehabi Z. The outbreak of monkeypox 2022: An overview. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022 Jun 24;79:104069. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35860140. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2022.104069

An overview from the early phase of the epidemic when just 92 cases had been confirmed worldwide, from 13 countries where monkeypox virus (MPXV) was not endemic.


23 June 2022

Kozlov M. Monkeypox in Africa: the science the world ignored. Nature. 2022 Jul;607(7917):17-18. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35739391. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-01686-z

Nature science journalist Max Kozlov reports that African researchers have been warning about monkeypox outbreaks for years. Considerations about the future of African monkeypox outbreaks.


22 June 2022

Brockmeyer NH. As monkeypox goes sexual: a public health perspective. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2022 Jun 22. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35731176. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.18301

“Individuals presenting with symptoms indicative of monkeypox or infected with the monkeypox virus must quarantine or isolate themselves for 14 to 21 days and must be additionally advised to abstain from sexual activities or any activities involving close contact until the disease is either excluded or the infection is resolved. Ideally, high-risk contacts, such as roommates, sexual partners and those who have been in close contact with an infected person, must also quarantine themselves for 14 days and monitor themselves for developing symptoms.”


20 June 2022

Quarleri J, Delpino MV, Galvan V. Monkeypox: considerations for the understanding and containment of the current outbreak in non-endemic countries. Geroscience. 2022 Jun 20:1-9. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35726117. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00611-6

Will monkeypox virus (MPV) create an enzootic reservoir outside of Africa? If this were the case, the public health implications would be difficult to predict.


13 June 2022

Guarner J, Del Rio C, Malani PN. Monkeypox in 2022-What Clinicians Need to Know. JAMA. 2022 Jun 13. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35696257. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.10802

A short summary by Jeannette Guarner et al. “Control of this growing international outbreak will require careful coordination among public health officials, clinicians, and the community to disseminate information, obtain appropriate diagnostic testing, implement contact tracing, and ensure that affected individuals and their contacts have access to medical care.”


3 June 2022

Cohen J. Global outbreak puts spotlight on neglected virus. Science. 2022 Jun 3;376(6597):1032-1033. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35653477. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.add2701

An early summary by Nature science journalist Jon Cohen.


27 May 2022

Kozlov2 M. Monkeypox outbreaks: 4 key questions researchers have. Nature. 2022 Jun;606(7913):238-239. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35624160. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-01493-6

How did the current outbreaks start? Could a genetic change in the virus explain the latest outbreaks? Can the outbreaks be contained? Is the virus spreading differently compared with previous outbreaks?


26 May 2022

León-Figueroa DA, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Pachar M, et al. The never-ending global emergence of viral zoonoses after COVID-19? The rising concern of monkeypox in Europe, North America and beyond. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022 May 26;49:102362. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35643256. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102362

“The SARS, Influenza, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemics of the 21st century demonstrate that there is a perennial risk of pandemics. While we cannot predict their occurrence, there is an urgent need to decrease vulnerability to become infected with any of these pathogens.”


24 May 2022

Adalja A, Inglesby T. A Novel International Monkeypox Outbreak. Ann Intern Med. 2022 May 24. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35605243. Full text: https://doi.org/10.7326/M22-1581

“The current outbreak—which includes confirmed or suspected cases in the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, France, Canada, Australia, Germany, and the Netherlands—appears to have a pattern of spread that does not mirror past outbreaks outside of Africa, almost all of which have been related to importation via flights from Africa or exposure to infected exotic pets.”


20 May 2022

Kozlov M. Monkeypox goes global: why scientists are on alert. Nature. 2022 Jun;606(7912):15-16. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/35595996. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-01421-8

One of the first summaries of the 2022 monkeypox outbreack. By Nature science journalist Max Kozlov.


19 May 2022

Yong E. So, Have You Heard About Monkeypox? The Atlantic 2022. Published 19 May. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2022/05/monkeypox-outbreak-covid-pandemic/629920


19 May 2022

WHO 20220519. Monkeypox. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox. Accessed 11 July 2022.

The pathogen, natural hosts, outbreaks, transmission, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, therapeutics, vaccination, prevention.


5 November 2020

Alakunle E, Moens U, Nchinda G, Okeke MI. Monkeypox Virus in Nigeria: Infection Biology, Epidemiology, and Evolution. Viruses. 2020 Nov 5;12(11):1257. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/33167496. Full text: https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111257

A 29-page review with 226 references. For your next weekend.


21 January 2019

Reynolds MG, Doty JB, McCollum AM, Olson VA, Nakazawa Y. Monkeypox re-emergence in Africa: a call to expand the concept and practice of One Health. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Feb;17(2):129-139. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/30625020. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1567330

Among the other areas covered by the authors: “We review laboratory and field studies examining the susceptibility of various animal taxa to monkeypox virus infection, and note the competence of various species to serve as reservoirs or transmission hosts.”


20 December 2016

Brown K, Leggat PA. Human Monkeypox: Current State of Knowledge and Implications for the Future. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 20;1(1):8. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/30270859. Full text: https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed1010008

A review.


24 October 2013

McCollum AM, Damon IK. Human monkeypox. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;58(2):260-7. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/24158414. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit703

A review.


15 December 2005

Nalca A, Rimoin AW, Bavari S, Whitehouse CA. Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 15;41(12):1765-71. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/16288402. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1086/498155

Monkeypox infection in humans can be very similar to those of smallpox, chickenpox, or other causes of vesiculopustular rash; therefore, accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostics are paramount in controlling an outbreak.


21 October 2004

Ligon BL. Monkeypox: a review of the history and emergence in the Western hemisphere. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;15(4):280-7. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/15494953. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.spid.2004.09.001

A summary of the 2003 outbreak in the USA.


15 January 2004

Di Giulio DB, Eckburg PB. Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Jan;4(1):15-25. PubMed: https://pubmed.gov/14720564. Full text: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(03)00856-9

A warning going back to 2004: “Of the lessons to be learned from the 2003 US outbreak of human monkeypox, perhaps two stand out. The first is that we can no longer afford to ignore uncommon, geographically restricted or seemingly conquered infectious agents. Second, governmental policies, including those pertaining to trade in wild animals, must reflect current scientific knowledge as well as the increasing global transport of people, animals, and other potential vectors of disease.”